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 I am thinking of planting a rain garden, in which I would want to primarily plant edible perennials. I am in south central Missouri. Does anyone have any designs they have used in similar situations, or suggestions besides the obvious, such as watercress and arrowhead?

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I haven't tried to grow it and I have yet to find it in the wild but my understanding is that groundnut (apios americana) grows in moist/wet conditions.  The roots have nodules or tubers that are edible (after cooking I believe).    http://www.pfaf.org/User/Plant.aspx?LatinName=Apios+americana

The usual intent of a rain garden is to utilize seasonally available water that sinks into the ground over a day  (or a few days) using species adapted to occasional inundation. Your choice of plants would be better applied towards either a pond or bog garden. Here is a link for a Missouri example of rain garden design and there is a downloadable file you can save for reference especially for which plant species are appropriate. Additionally any good nursery dealing with wet prairie species of plants can be helpful. Here are two seed and plant sources that we have found useful. http://www.prairienursery.com/   and   https://www.prairiemoon.com/  Also any time you set up a berm and swale system you are essentially building a rain gardem Our west roof drains into an IBC tote which then overflows into an uphill swale system that fills all the veggie and fruit garden paths. These when full of water take about 4 hours to infiltrate. The overall yard system drains to a pond at the center, which when filled to the overflow point drains to a woodland of paw paw and persimmon as well as several dozens of other species before infiltration. The whole system only filled to overflow once and that was early in its development when the tree roots had not penetrated deep enough to allow full drainage back to the soil aquifer. That year, 2008, we had 16 inches of rain over a 9 day period and the entire yard filled up and drained out to the street from there. Hasn't happened since. Check the sites for more species and you will be pleasntly surprised with the variety of useful species you can grow. Also check out the Natural Capital Plant Database for specifics based upon what your site parameters are and what may be useful to your needs. https://www.permacultureplantdata.com/index.php?option=com_content&...

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